Revised 24 May 2019



Settlement Attribute

Growth Settlement

Steady State Settlement


Economic Philosophy


Primary Concept

Scarcity

Scarcity


Attitude to Scarcity

Conflict

Acceptance


Purpose of Production

Consumption

Maintenance


Emphasis on Production

Productivity

Distribution


Timescale Horizon

Narrow

Wide


Incentive for Work

Income for consumption

Satisfaction


Attitude to Work

Necessary evil

Part of Life


Work and Leisure

Differentiated

Little difference


Place of Humankind in Ecosystem

Domination

Participatory


Population


Doubling Time

36 Years

No doubling time


Percentage Growth Rate

2.0 %

0 %


Age Composition Profile

Triangular

Cylindrical


Age Dependency Ratio

≈ 66% if constant 2.0% growth

Dependent on life expectancy.

Can be as low as 54% during transition from high growth to ZPG

≈ 72%

Dependent on life expectancy


Total Fertility

2.23 (New Zealand)

Approx. 2.11


Time to Re-stabilise

70 years

Already stable


Net Reproduction Rate

1.221 (New Zealand)

1.000


Family Structure

Nuclear family

Extended family


Urbanisation

High (80%)

Lower (20-40 %?)


Capital Stock


Durability

Low

High


Net Maintenance Energy Cost

High

Low


Recycling

Not accounted for

Important


Creation of New Capital Stock

Investment from profit (increase in energy use)

Allow old stock to depreciate or forgo consumption


Energy Production


Source

Energy stock

Energy flow


Limits of Production

Depletion and net energy decrease

Technological and energy/food balance


Permanence of Source

Non-renewable

Renewable


Level of Pollution

High Pollution

Low Pollution


Pattern of Energy Flow

Increasing then decline

Constant level


Consumption


Pattern per Capita

Increasing per capita

Constant per capita


Goods and Services Consumption

Unnecessary consumption

Necessary consumption


Tertiary Sector

High interdependence of large tertiary sector

Small tertiary sector – self sufficiency


Distribution of Consumption

Unequal distribution

Equal distribution


Wastage

High wastage

Low wastage


Industrial Production


Pollution

Heavy pollution

Light or no pollution


Energy Consumption

High energy consumption

Low energy consumption


Technological Accidents

Frequent and serious

Infrequent and insignificant


Type of Processes

Complicated

Comprehensible


Impact on other Life Forms

Destruction of other life forms

Participatory dependence of on other life forms


Risk of Processes

Ecologically dangerous

Ecologically adapted


Food Production


Type of Agricultural System

Monoculture

Permaculture and diversification


Participation in food production

Industrialised production by large farm units

Production of food involves everyone


Factors of production

Energy and capital intensive

More labour intensive


Use of Fertilisers

Artificial fertilisers

Natural fertilisers


Use of animals

Animals used primarily as food source

Animals perhaps used for mechanical energy value


Impact on soil

Erosion

Replenishment


EROEI

Low < 0.1

High > 10


Control of pests

Dangerous pesticides used

Ecological techniques used






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